The antigen processing pathway and MHC-II.Certain pathogenic bacteria and protozoan parasites survive ingestion by macrophages and replicate inside the intracellular vesicles of the endosomal–lysosomal system. These bacteria and their toxic products can be broken down by digestive enzymes and their peptides delivered to be bound by MHC class II molecules. These molecules are then brought to the surface of the Antigen Presenting Cell (APC) and presented to T cell receptors along with the co-receptor molecule CD4. If the epitope is antigenic it may activate the T cells and elicit an immune response. By efficiently endocytosing specific antigen via their surface immunoglobulin and presenting the antigen-derived peptides on MHC class II molecules, B cells can activate CD4 T cells that will in turn serve as helper T cells for the production of antibodies against that antigen.
The generation of peptides from native proteins is commonly referred to as antigen processing. The antigen presentation pathway is fundamental to the cellular adaptive immune reponse.
Accurate prediction of the peptides that will form antigenic epitopes is essential to rational vaccine design. Such prediction is largely done by estimating the binding affinity of the peptide to the MHC-II molecule. This is determined by the binding core region of the ligand. Peptide binding will often be allele restricted or promiscuous and bind to multiple alleles. Methods such as TEPITOPE and NetMHCIIpan rely on determining the polymorphic pockets of the MHC binding groove, almost entirely located on the beta-chain. The particular amino acids in the binding pockets determine the peptide specificity of that allele.
Given the size of pathogen proteomes and variation between strains it is clear that computational tools are necessary for automated screening and selection of immunological features before experiments are performed. With the availability of whole genomes for many microbial species it is now feasible to computationally search an annotated proteome for likely epitopes, this is the basis of immunoinformatics. Given that the immune system may present sequences from any protein antigen to stimulate T-cell responses, consideration of the entire proteome is necessary for a complete picture of the potential antigen repertoire.